An island with a hole in it
In March of 1954 this island exploded. This is Bikini Atoll, site of many American nuclear weapons tests in the middle of the 20th century.
The crater you see on this image from the Operational Land Imager on NASA’s Landsat 8 spacecraft was produced during a test of a new American thermonuclear weapon design.
The bomb was expected to explode with a force of 4-6 megatons, but instead, it wound up releasing energy equivalent to 15 megatons of TNT, making it one of the most powerful nuclear tests ever conducted.
The explosion was so large that it destroyed much of the equipment set up to monitor it and also scattered radioactive material over a huge area. Although the population of Bikini Atoll had been evacuated years beforehand, so much material was thrown up that inhabitants of other nearby islands were given large doses of radiation; those residents weren’t evacuated until several days afterwards when they began showing symptoms of radiation poisoning. A Japanese fishing boat was also in the area and the crew did not realize that the light they saw in the distance was a nuclear explosion; one crewman reportedly died due to exposure.
The test prompted protests worldwide due to the exposure of so many to radiation; eventually those protests helped lead to the ending of atmospheric nuclear testing. To this day it is unclear why the Americans miscalculated so badly on the test’s expected energy; whatever the cause was, it remains classified.
Portions of the population of Bikini Atoll attempted to return several decades after the tests but it was found that soils on the island remained contaminated and it was not safe to eat foods grown from those soils. To this day, this series of islands remains largely uninhabited.
Illinois: Outside of Byron
Alpha radiation is high-energy electrons or positrons, two protons and two neutrons sticking together with no electrons around. Very potent, but penetrates matter weakly. A sheet of paper (or your skin) will block them. When alpha-active matter is ingested it will cause major problems.
Beta radiation is high-energy electrons. Similarly to Alpha radiation, both are made of particles and penetrate matter weakly. Beta radiation can be blocked by a thin sheet of metal.
Gamma radiation is extremely high frequency photons, beyond UV and X-rays. It penetrates matter easily and you need excessive lead shielding to filter out a lethal dose.
Map of the World by Natural Skin Color
i’m really dumbfounded that i never realized skin colour is literally just caused by being closer to or farther from the equator and the resulting sun exposure and skin darkening
actually, its an adaptation. natural selection. people with darker skin are selected for in areas near the equator, where the melanin that causes the darker color protects them from radiation and protects them from skin cancer and other health defects, and because they are healthier they can pass on that trait more. people near the poles have lighter skin because it allows them absorb more of the limited sunlight to convert to vitamin d.
THIS IS THE THING SOME PEOPLE HATE OTHER PEOPLE OVER.
Evolution of melanin levels based on geographical location.
For the comments. Exactly!
Sniper prank (illegal, don’t try this at home).